How is political marketing?

How is political marketing?
In political marketing as in commercial marketing must pay attention to the main elements of marketing, namely the product (product), place (place), Price (price), Promotion (promotion). Or popularly referred to as marketing mix (marketing mix), because its correlated with analysis of effectiveness of marketing mix in party politics.
1. Product (product). Products in commercial marketing are goods produced that want to be marketed to meet the needs of buyers. Niffenegger in Tabroni divides political products into three categories, namely: first, Party platform (party platform) second, past record (record of things done in the past), third, personal characteristics (personal characteristics).
2. Place. In the political context, a place to display campaign products such as photos, billboards, posters and others is very instrumental to the success of a candidate or political party in the aim of being known by the public or furthermore, winning the most votes in the election. The place can also be spaces in the mass media, for example in newspaper rubrics provided for interviews with politicians, as well as television and radio programs that present interactive dialogues with politicians, where the public can find out what programs work, and ideas from these politicians. The internet can also be used as a very strategic place to introduce politicians and political parties, which is currently becoming a trend among politicians to use social media on the internet as a venue for promotion and to reap sympathizers.
3. Price (price). In the context of marketing commercial products a product that has good quality has a higher price compared to products that have second-class quality. Politicians who are members of large and well-known political parties and have a good track record certainly have a higher value than politicians from small parties or small parties who do not have a meaningful track record. In a democratic system, the voting process can be seen as devolving rights and obligations to one or a candidate to regulate the lives of all individuals in society. It takes the trust and confidence of the people in choosing politicians and political parties. That is the price that must be paid by voters during the vote, and of course greater trust and confidence will be given to products of better quality compared to products of poor quality.
4. Promotion (promotion). Promotion in the context of political marketing can be in the form of campaigns using various types of communication media, whether print, electronic, or interpersonal communication supported by communication techniques, which display slogans, jargon, images, and work programs of political parties and their politicians packed in the form of messages that are interesting and easily accepted by the public, promotions in the form of campaigns are usually accompanied by the appearance of artists who can entertain and as an attraction for the public to listen to the contents of the campaign.
The Role of Spin Doctor in Political Marketing. The form of political marketing is very diverse by using various kinds of communication media, both print media, electronic media, outdoor media, the internet with social media, or by using interpersonal communication. One way of political marketing is through campaigns, in this campaign ideas, ideas, values, ideologies, ideals and work programs of politicians and political parties whose orientation is more at the level of awareness, attitudes and behavioral changes to accept new things, delivered to the community.
According to Kotler and Roberto in Cangara the campaign is an effort organized by a group (agents of change) aimed at persuading targets so they can accept, modify or discard certain ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Carrying out a campaign is not easy, not a few campaigns that fail, this is where the role of spin doctor is needed, experts in designing campaigns well so that the campaign is successfully implemented. Spin doctors in politics are also known as campaign managers, because Spin doctors use the principles of public relations in their work processes, whereas public relations itself in its activities cannot be separated from management principles where its activities have certain stages and are not made arbitrarily or go along but based on a study first, then make planning, communication (actuating), and end with an evaluation.
In the study of communication planning, there are several steps that must be taken in implementing a campaign. According to Cangara there are several steps that spin doctors can take in planning communication for campaigns, namely: finding and determining problems, analyzing audiences, formulating objectives, selecting media, developing messages, planning media production, planning program management, monitoring and evaluating.
1. Analyzing the problem, the spin doctor must first analyze the problems that occur in the community related to what are unmet needs in the community, and the problems that occur in the community. This is necessary to determine the theme of the campaign to be conveyed, and to be a reference for determining the objectives, types of media to be used, and what effects will be achieved from campaign activities.
2. Analyzing the audience is done to find out who is the audience of the campaign to be carried out. The audience plays a very important role, because all campaign activities carried out are directed at them. There are several things that need to be known that relate to audiences, namely gender, age, occupation, education level, economic background, social and cultural background, beliefs adhered to, political parties adhered to by audiences, availability of technology such as telecommunications networks and transportation mobility . This needs to be known to determine the strategy in preparing the campaign plan, including in the selection of media to be used and the types of messages to be delivered to the public at the time of the campaign.

Waste Management Issues

Waste Management Issues
Garbage Dumps. The world population has almost doubled over the past 25 years, from 119.20 million in 1971 to 198.20 million in 1996 and again to 204.78 million in 1999. If the level This population growth did not experience drastic positive changes, so by 2020 the world's population is estimated to reach 262.4 million with the assumption that the natural population growth rate is around 0.9% per year. This population increase is not expected to be spread evenly, but will be concentrated in urban areas. This is because urban areas are very attractive places for people to develop socioeconomic life. In addition, the problem of solid waste management and the development of the world economy through the path of industrialization directly affects urban development.
In 1980 the percentage of urban population in the World was 27.29% of the world's population, while in 1990 the percentage increased to 30.93%. It is estimated that in 2020 the percentage of the world's urban population will reach 50% of the world's population. As a result of the increasing level of consumption of the community and other activities is also increasing the waste / waste produced. Waste / discharges arising from community activities and consumption, better known as domestic waste, has become an environmental problem that must be addressed by the government and the community itself. The domestic waste, both liquid and solid waste, is an environmental problem because the quantity and degree of danger disturbs human health, pollutes the environment, and interferes with the lives of other living things.
Specifically for household solid waste or solid waste, the increase in the amount of waste generated in the World is expected to increase 5-fold by 2020. The average production of waste is expected to increase from 800 grams per day per capita in 1995 to 910 grams per day per capita in 2003. For the city, in 1998/1999 waste production per day reached 26,320 cubic meters. Compared to 1996/1997, waste production in the area rose by around 18%. This is caused not only by population growth but also due to increased waste generation per capita caused by improvements in economic levels and welfare. Until now, the handling and management of waste is still not optimal.
Only 11.25% of rubbish in urban areas is transported by officers, 63.35% of rubbish is buried / burned, 6.35% of rubbish is made compost, and 19.05% of rubbish is dumped into the river / recklessly. While in rural areas, as much as 19% of the garbage is transported by officers, 54% of the canoes are buried / burned, 7% of the waste is composted, and 20% is thrown into the river / carelessly. There are several types of waste, these types must be distinguished so that management is easier and can be used optimally, namely:
Inorganic waste is waste originating from inanimate objects. Domestic Waste is waste originating from domestic activities. Organic waste is waste originating from living objects. Agricultural waste is waste originating from crops or agricultural harvests, crop cutting and other materials originating from rice fields, fields and gardens. Household waste is rubbish originating from household activities. The legal basis in this issue can be seen in the law on Environmental Management About Waste Management. In order to overcome these problems, it is time to compile a Waste Management Legislation which forms the legal basis of technical regulations in the field of waste management and forms the basis of waste management actions that bind the community, both individuals and communities, the government, and business actors.
Therefore, with the passage of the Law on Waste Management this year, it marks the importance of this waste management problem until it is regulated in a separate law. It is time for the world, clean from the rubbish and rubbish that is well managed, especially to improve the economy of the lower class (scavengers). The problem of canoe management in the World has been so complex that it involves the main actors of canoe management, namely: 1. Society: individuals and communities 2. Government:
Government and local government 3. Business Actors: producers, sellers, traders, services The constraints found to operate sanitary landfills are: a) Lack of heavy equipment owned b) Difficult / expensive land for waste cover c) Leachate treatment pond is not functioning d) Inadequate human resources In connection with the costs that must be spent for waste management, in the cities surveyed stated the limited funds as one of the obstacles to improving waste management services. The limitations of these funds can result in: a. Inability to perform maintenance on existing waste management facilities and infrastructure, b. Inability to replace waste management facilities and infrastructure that have been damaged, c, Inability to procure new facilities and infrastructure for waste management to achieve better service targets,
d. Inability to carry out solid waste management in accordance with the operational standards that are supposed to be (for example: landfill plan = sanitary landfill, but only open dumping or maximum control dumping is carried out). The existence of stipulations on payment of fees and fees, the community feels that for waste management they must pay twice, namely to the management and DINAS. This happens because people do not know exactly how the waste flow after they do not need it so they do not have the information or knowledge of the amount of costs needed to get rid of waste from their environment. What they want is that after paying contributions and cleaning fees, garbage has become a responsibility. In an effort to reduce the amount of waste, both the government and the community carry out composting. However, to utilize waste as a compost industry they encounter obstacles and challenges, namely:
1. Quality Constraints 2. Marketing Constraints 3. Quantity and continuity constraints 4. Funding constraints From the description above it can be seen that the problems in waste management are increasingly complex. Problems that must be faced by local governments are also quite heavy. Whereas the problems faced by Business Actors are national (across city / provincial administrative boundaries).

An International Journal is Certainly a Scientific Journal

An International Journal is Certainly a Scientific Journal
It turns out that what is meant by this international journal is not the same thing as a scientific journal. An international journal is certainly a scientific journal because something written in that international journal is a new thing and is scientific. Then is the international journal global? The answer is yes. This journal content is international in nature with strict and new selection. This international journal is also a scientific journal because it can be said that the contents of this international journal are scientific and accountable.
You should know that not just anyone and everyone can write in an international journal. Only those or those who are competent can write in international journals. Even so, sometimes even experts are not sure that their writings will be published in zambrut scientific journals. This international journal also has a fairly high level or arguably the highest among other journals. This level is obtained not only in writing but also can be seen from how tight this journal can be published.
Wow, it's quite complicated, just writing journals must be selected and not just anyone who can write an international journal. It must be like that, because the name is also an international journal, so it must be someone who really masters and is also smart in writing skills. Like going to college, But that's the fact, it must be selective and strict.
Bibliography is a reference that shows the source of writing a scientific work. Based on dictionary bibliography is a list that contains the title of the book, the name of the author, publisher, and so on. The list is placed at the end of a scientific work or book. Bibliography is arranged alphabetically. Bibliography is included to avoid plagiarism or imitating works in the form of papers, articles, or theses.
When to Write a Bibliography The time to write a bibliography is very clear, which is at the end of your writing. Every time you write a sentence that quotes from a book, scientific work, or article, you must make a bibliography note related to it. Generally there will be footnotes on each page that contain excerpt sentences. The footnote is then referred to the title of the book or bibliography at the end of the page of the book, article, or paper.
If the bibliography is included in the book, the bibliography can be seen at the end of the book on a special page. The writing of each bibliography will be adjusted to the ethics of each written work and cannot be contested. Reasons Why Bibliography Is Important Bibliography is very important to write, as one of the signs that the author does not do plagiarism. Here are the reasons why bibliography is important.

Definition of Linguistic Language and Linguistics

Definition of Linguistic Language and Linguistics
1) Language is a unique structure of speech sounds chosen and arranged arbitrarily (without planning, or just by chance and not according to certain rules or laws) to be used as a means of communication. This is the usual definition of language, the definition according to language function. According to the new definition, language is a number of verses and each verse has a limited length and is made of a limited number of elements. 1) Noam Chomsky, in 1957, the definition according to the form and the verses that were formed were always according to the rules or grammatical formulas. So language, by this definition, is a behavior governed by formulas. Simanjuntak, Mangantar. 1987. Introduction to Modern Psycholinguistics. Kuala Lumpur: Council of Languages and Libraries of the Malaysian Ministry of Students
2) Kridalaksana (in Posted in Zambrut Journal): "Language is an arbitrary system of sound symbols used by members of social groups to work together, communicate, and identify themselves".
3) Language: 1 an arbitrary sound symbol system, which is used by members of a community to work together, interact, and identify themselves; 2 good conversations; good behavior; politeness.
4) According to Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), gives two understandings of language. The first understanding states language as a communication tool between community members in the form of sound symbols produced by human speech tools. Second, language is a communication system that uses arbitrary vocal symbols (speech sounds).
According to Owen in Stiawan (2006:1), explaining the definition of language that is language can be defined as a socially shared combination of those symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols (language can be defined as a socially accepted code or conventional system to convey concepts through the use of the symbols desired and the combination of symbols governed by the provisions).
Tarigan (1989: 4), he gave two definitions of language. First, language is a systematic system, perhaps also for generative systems. Second, language is a set of symbols where arbitrary symbols or likes. According to Santoso (1990:1), language is a series of sounds that are produced by the means of conscious human speech. Language is a form and not a state (lenguage may be form and not matter) or an arbitrary sound symbol system, or also a system of many systems, a system of an order or an order in systems.
That understanding was stated by Mackey (1986:12). According to Wibowo (2001:3), language is a meaningful and articulated sound symbol system (produced by utterance) which is arbitrary and conventional in nature, which is used as a means of communication by a group of humans to give birth to feelings and thoughts.

Scientific and Descriptive Approach to Linguistic Analysis

Language has been studied for several years and from totally different views. At first, language was studied in terms of its structure; but, with the appearance of linguistics, it began to be studied in reference to the society that uses it, that makes language delineate in an objective manner, as there was a a lot of scientific and descriptive approach to linguistic analysis with stress on the spoken usage. the appearance of linguistics has attracted the interest of the many researchers, and it's involved with the connections between language and society and also the manner we tend to use it in several social things.
It describes language variation in its social context and it had been William Labov WHO opened the door to such a study, that had been neglected fully in linguistic theory. Speech variation as a crucial subject has been mentioned by several sociolinguists in several dimensions.
 A Sociolinguistic study of language variation, linguistics, as an enormous field, studies the wide range of dialects across a given region, to the analysis of the various social variables influencing the speaker’s language. It typically shows U.S. the droll realities of human speech and the way a accent of a given language will typically describe the age, gender, and socio-economic class or level of education… of the speaker. (Naima, 2012).
This paper is poised to research the character and functions of language use and variation taking into consideration language variation and alter at intervals the dialects of Dagbani (South Western Oti-Volta), a central Voltaic language spoken by the Dagbamba in Northern Gold Coast. The canonical order of Dagbani is essentially Subject, Verb, and Object (SVO), additionally known as Agent Verb Object.
Dagbani has 3 major dialects that include: Tomosili, (the Western dialect) spoken in dish and its surroundings, Nayahili (the jap dialect), spoken in and around Yendi, and Nanuni, that is additionally spoken around Bimbilla and its surroundings. Noticeable non-standard speech variations area unit primarily phonologic and lexical with none illustrious syntactic/structural variations. the information for the study is drawn from oral conversations through interview.

Abortion is One amongst the Foremost Polemic Problems with Modern World

Abortion is one amongst the foremost polemic problems with modern world as a result of its nature, method and consequences yet because the ethical and moral problems about it. thus obtaining correct knowledge on abortion is troublesome to come back by in Republic of Ghana. Abortion is termination of physiological state by the removal or expulsion of a embryo from the female internal reproductive organ (Dutt, 1998). once more abortion is wherever a robust suction tube with a pointy innovative is inserted within the uterus through the cervix.
This suction destroys the body of the developing baby and tears the placenta from the wall of the female internal reproductive organ, intake blood and different tissues into a bottle (Ghana Celebrities, 2011). Perceptions of girls on legalisation of abortion, abortion will occur impromptu because of complications throughout physiological state or iatrogenic in humans and different species.
The context of human pregnancies, abortion iatrogenic to preserve the health of the gravida is termed induced abortion, whereas Associate in  abortion iatrogenic for Associate in reason is termed an elective abortion. Abortion has low risk of maternal mortality aside from abortions performed unsafely, which ends up in seventy five,000 deaths and four,5 million disabilities p.a. globally (Shah & Ahman, 2009).
Unsafe abortion is critical explanation for morbidity and maternal mortality within the world. Most unsafe abortions occur wherever abortion is prohibited (Rosenthal, 2007) or in developing countries wherever health care is at a usually low level (Chaudhuri, 2007). concerning one in eight pregnancy-related deaths worldwide are related to unsafe abortion (Maclean & Gaynor, 2005).
The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that every year nearly forty two million ladies area unit two-faced with accidental pregnancies. they are going ahead to possess abortions, of that twenty million area unit unsafe (WHO, 2011; Rosenthal, 2007). in step with WHO and Institute Guttmacher (2010), around sixty eight,000 ladies die annually as a results of complications of unsafe abortion and between 2 million and 7 million ladies annually survive unsafe abortion, however sustain semipermanent injury or illness like miscarriage, infection (sepsis), trauma, and injury to the inner organs (tearing of the uterus).

Manufacturing Scientifically Literate Students

In the history of science education in African colleges, teaching students to grasp however science works remains a problem of concern. within the past centuries, there are many academic reforms nonetheless science education has been frequently criticized for not manufacturing scientifically literate students (Lederman, 2007). Science education is that the discipline handling learning science and teaching in outside colleges and colleges.
Science education analysis includes legitimation, academic reconstruction and choice of topics to be learned. Justification and choice of general aims of teaching and learning science, likewise as tutorial sequencing that takes the learners’ psychological feature, emotional and social preconditions into consideration. an additional domain of science education work is research-based development likewise as analysis of teaching and learning approaches (KVFF, 1998), and materials.
According to Duit (2006) Students misconception and integrated science, science education may be a genuinely inter-disciplinary discipline. Clearly, science may be a major reference discipline however there area unit competencies in numerous disciplines that also are required. Philosophy of science and history of science give thinking patterns to analyse the character of science critically, and also the explicit contribution of science to grasp the “world”, i.e. nature and technology (Duit,2006).
Shulman (1987) contended that academics would like an oversized spectrum of rather completely different competencies. consistent with Gess-Newsome and Lederman (1999) data of conception of “content specific education knowledge” additionally known as education Content data (PCK) has been wide adopted in science education.
 Considering the study of integrated science, there has been a way effort of analysis documenting student and teacher misconceptions, however, a lot of remains to be done by method of development and implementation of effective nature of science curricula.(Talbot, 2010).Research has made public core concepts relative to different concepts of the character of science (Lederman, 2007; McComas,2004) likewise as misconceptions control by each students and academics (Blosser,1987; Lederman, 2007; McComas, 1996; Rubba, 1976).
Researchers have conducted studies on numerous age teams from primary school, through highschool and school, to academics conception. the character of Science analysis has been conducted in an exceedingly kind of content areas (Lederman, 2007). However, no studies were found victimization senior high school students in Adjena Senior school, Ghana.